Contents ...
udn網路城邦
英文寫作標點符號用法(11)
2010/05/04 19:30
瀏覽79,459
迴響1
推薦10
引用1

                                                     廖柏森

相關資訊: http://www.jwbooks.com.tw/catalog/link/SEO34-index.htm

(四) 引號 : “ ”/ ‘’ (quotation marks/ inverted commas)

寫作時於文中標示強調、有特別含義或引述的情況,常會使用引號。英文的引號和中文一樣有雙引號(double quotation)和單引號(single quotation),而中文在引述時先用單引號,如果單引號之中需要再使用引號時就用雙引號。英文使用引號的情況則不同,如美式英文的引述都是多用雙引號,只有在雙引號之中還需要使用引號時才用單引號;而英式英文則是反過來,平常大多用單引號,這也就是英式英文又把冒號稱為倒置逗號(inverted commas)的原因,而單引號之中若需再用引號時才使用雙引號。而且引號一定是成對使用,必須同時出現兩個引號,寫作者有時引述過長,常會忘記加上第二個引號,需要小心檢查。以下為幾種在論文寫作時常見的用法: 

4.1 使用雙引號中出現單引號的情況如以下例句:

Writing ‘Writing Scientific English’” by John Swale, recounts the difficulties faced by a materials writer who lacked an adequate conceptual framework.

John Swale的文章〈撰寫《Writing Scientific English》〉重述了一位教材作者在缺乏足夠的概念架構下所遇到的困難。

說明: 此句中“Writing ‘Writing Scientific English’”是一篇文章名,而這篇文章的主題是撰寫Writing Scientific English這本書的過程,因為文章名已經用了雙引號,在寫書名時只好用單引號,形成雙引號中有單引號的現象。 

以上是美式英文的寫法,但如果是英式英文,就有可能是在單引號中出現雙引號的情形。如下句:

In Atkinson’s (1998) words, What may be generated as data is affected by what the researcher can treat as writable and “readable”’.

引用Atkinson (1998)的話:「何謂產出的『資料』是以研究者視為『可寫』和『可讀』的因素所決定。」

說明: 此句是英國學者所寫,在引用Atkinson的話時先用單引號,而引文中有特殊用語如data, writable, readable等字需要引號時,就只能用雙引號,形成單引號中有雙引號。 

4.2 當強調某字詞或賦予其特別意義(special sense),或引用某個單字或片語時,可以在該字詞前後加引號,如下句:

This perspective could best be framed in terms of a container metaphor.

此觀點用「容器比喻」來理解可能最為適合。

說明: 有些寫作規範宣稱句尾有引號時,句尾的標點應放在引號內。但如上句其實並不一定要這樣做,也可以把句號放在引號外,畢竟句尾的標點和引號內的內容不一定是相同的語義單位。簡單來說,如果句尾標點與引號內容直接相關時可放在引號內,但如果句尾標點是標示全句語義時就可置於引號外。

 

有誰推薦more
迴響(1) :
1樓.
2010/06/11 16:27
Punctuation item inside/outside quotation marks ( Revised layout of text)
 Dear Prof. Liao:

     I'm writing in response to your idea at the bottom of the page, which says "if a puncutation item has something to do with the information in the quotations marks, put it inside; otherwise, leave the item outside if it goes with the whole sentence." I have never seen this perspective before, so I found it necessary to look into the usage in order to enhance my command of writing.

       

     Here's a sentence in this page which I want to ask about. I appreciate it if you would take care of my question.

In Atkinson's (1998) words, ' What may be generated as "data" is affected by what the researcher can treat as "writable" and “readable"'.

=> Clearly, Atkinson's statement ends inside the quotation marks;

     why doesn't the period go with it?

  I'm looking forward to your reply.

Sincerely,

Chingy Lin


Dear Chingy,

 

The above example sentences I cited from academic textbooks just prove my point. Different authors may use periods within or out of quotation marks in various contexts. The conventional rule of putting periods inside quotation marks is never consistently followed by all English writers. It's better to adopt a descriptive rather than a prescriptive perspective (your perspective) to look at this particular usage.

 

For example, British authors tend to put periods outside quotation marks, just like the following sentence:

l      In Atkinson’s (1998) words, ‘What may be generated as “data” is affected by what the researcher can treat as “writable” and “readable”’.

 

I can give you one more example from a textbook entitled Qualitative Inquiry in TESOL written by Keith Richards, a British scholar, as follows:

l      Adler and Adler (1994:377) sum up the position perfectly: ‘What differentiates the observation of social scientists from those of everyday-life actors is the former’s systematic and purposive nature’.

 

And another example sentence from another academic book Ethnography, authored by two well-known researchers in the U.K.:

l      Tinbergen (1972:23) remarks that periods of exploratory, intuitive observation are of particular value ‘when one feels in danger of getting out of touch with the natural phenomena, of narrowing one’s field of vision’.

 

As for your question concerning the sentence below:

l      This perspective could best be framed in terms of a “container metaphor”.

 

It is a very common practice to put other punctuation marks outside quotation marks when we just quote a word, a phrase, or a term for emphasis or for citation. Examples abound if you look around in the academic literature. Perhaps two quick examples can help you understand:

l      This can take a variety of forms. One is what Glaser and Strauss (1967) call ‘theoretical sampling’.

l      Public domains may be marked by styles of social interaction involving what Goffman (1971) terms ‘civil inattention’.

Posen 2010/06/12 01:02回覆