Are Women still and always on the March? 女性是否依然持續前行?
Sister Celia Chua, MIC, 2012 蔡修女於2012
This paper is the fruit of some reflection I had after celebrating 2012 International Women’s day in Montreal with religious and lay women. The theme of the 2012 International Women’s Day was on “Feminism has never been more real.” This statement called my attention then paused some questions, are women still and always on the march? In order to comprehend and find some guidelines to the question of feminism today, first, a quick rereading on where and when women issues took place in the history, including some collective actions taken in Taiwan (where I missioned from 1974 to 2005) globally ( Asian ) and regionally ( East Asia-Taiwan ) ? What new challenges are feminist – women movements facing in 2012?
此篇文章是我在蒙特婁與修會會士及女性平信徒, 慶祝2012年國際婦女節後的一些感想. 2012國際婦女節的主題放在「女權運動未曾如此名符其實. 」先是受到這點的吸引, 而後則停在幾個問題上, 女性是否還繼續向前發展? 要瞭解並找出現今女性運動相關問題的方向, 先要重新流灠一下, 女性議題在歷史上是在何時何處產生的, 包括一些在台灣(1974年到2005年我在此任職期間)進行的全球性(亞洲)及區域性(東亞-台灣)羣眾運動? 女權運動者有哪些新挑戰--婦女運動在2012年所面臨的?
I. A brief history of women movement also known as feminist movement. This movement began in the Western world (Virginia State, USA) in the late 18th century and has gone through three waves:
婦女運動, 亦即我們所知的女權運動, 的簡史, 這個運動始於十八世紀末葉的西方世界(美國維吉尼亞州), 並歷經三波階段:
- The First wave was oriented around the station of middle and upper-class white women, and involved suffrage (right to vote) and gender equality in politics. In 1919, USA government in the Nineteenth Amendment grants women the right to vote. This led to the consciousness of other ethnic groups and multicultural forms of feminism.
- 第一波以中上階級白人婦女為導向, 並含蓋政治上的選舉投票權及性別平等. 1919年美國政府在第十九次修憲中, 賦與婦女投票權, 此項修正案促使其他的種族意識, 及女權運動多元文化的形成.
-The Second Wave (1960-1980) was concerned with gender inequality in laws and culture. It built what was achieved in the first wave. A French author, Simone de Beauvoir is associated in this wave because of her idea as “the other”. This idea was touch in USA on in the writing of Virginia Woolf. She applied the gender equality not only the women roles in the household or at work, but also in their sexuality. During this time, feminists campaigned against cultural and political inequalities and encouraged women to understand aspects of their own personal experiences. Since 1974, Religious women of Asia rally through the forums of AMOR ( Asia-Oceania Meeting of Religious ), the birth of SPROUT group Taiwan Women Concern in 1996 and other women NGO groups.
- 第二波(1960-1980)所關注的在於法律上及文化上的性別不平等, 這項運動在第一波時即已形成. 法國作家西蒙波娃因她「其餘的」想法而與這一階段產生關聯; 這個想法在薇姬妮雅伍爾芙的著作中, 與美國接上線; 她不僅將女性角色放在家庭事務或職場工作上, 也在性關係上做訴求. 在這個階段當中, 女權運動者楬櫫文化與政治上的不平等, 並鼓勵婦女在她們自身的經歷方面多所瞭解. 自1974年起, 亞洲的女修會會士重整AMOR(,)論壇, 促成1996年胚芽團體台灣婦女關懷小組及其他非政府婦女組織的誕生.
- The Third Wave ( 1980- ) saw the awakening of women in different parts of the world. Women theologians affirm in regional as well as continental theological thinking. In the Catholic Church, women had to make a stand on their beliefs and their belonging to the Institutional Catholic Church. Many women reaffirm their faith and belief and work for changes while others left the Institutional Church and group themselves called communities of believers. Women who opt to stay work hand in hand with men and women of good faith. It was also during the turn of the third millennium that some feminine Catholic Theologians took the initiative to promote the Feminist theology and spirituality in academic and pastoral fields. The receptions were good so the march is still going on.
- 第三波(1980年--)是看見世界各地婦女的覺醒; 女性神學家肯定地區及洲際間的神學思想. 在天主教會中的女性, 過去為堅持她們在信仰與歸屬上的立場, 必須與制度化的天主教會做抵抗; 許多婦女在其他人離開制度化的教會之際, 重申她們的信德與信仰並進行變革, 進而團結起來召集成信仰團體; 選擇留下來的婦女與深具信德的男士與女士聯手合作. 也就在進入第三個千年之時, 一些天主教女性神學研究者在學術與教牧領域上, 提升了女權主義者神學及靈修; 由於廣為接受而現仍有進展.
The present wave called new feminism focuses efforts to network rather than to confront, to create a culture of life rather than a culture of death, be peace educator, teacher of peace rather than hard line militants, many other positive actions, dialogues and collaborations are taking place.
目前所謂新女性主義的階段, 重點放在網脈聯繫溝通上的努力, 而非對立上; 在建立生命的文化上, 而非死亡的文化上; 在成為和平教育者、和平導師, 而非激進份子; 其他諸多方面之正向行動、對話及合作都在產生當中.
Here is also where 2012 International Women’s Day in Montreal came in with the reflection on the roles of women in a society that are becoming more and more secular and lay. On one hand secularization means a separation of church and religion. (Give to Caesar what belongs to Caesar and give to God what belongs to God). On the other hand, the nature of laicity (a Lay state) in the church aims to narrow the gap between the hierarchy and lay people (including women religious). In the society, sociologically, civil authority does not claim to prefer one religion to another. In a society such as Taiwan which is secular and lay, what are some new challenges facing feminism-women movements in the society and in the church? Are there signs of hope for new evangelization and peace?
在蒙特婁的2012年國際婦女節會議中有提到, 社會中的婦女角色, 有越來越多是在俗神職人員及平信徒. 這一方面意味著教會與宗教的切割. (凱撒的歸凱撒, 天主的歸天主.) . 另一方面, 教會中在俗身份(在俗的狀態)的特點, 旨在縮小神職人員與平信徒間(包括女會士)的差距. 以社會學觀點來看,公民權的聲明，不在提升一個宗教而貶抑另一個宗教; 以具有在俗神職人員及平信徒的台灣社會為例, 在社會上與教會裏, 所面臨的女性主義婦女運動中, 一些新的挑戰是哪些? .
2. Some new challenges for a new evangelization and peace:
As disciples of Jesus and sisters/ friends to others, feminist –women movements are facing some challenges to be creative and courageous to keep the pace of marching towards the future. Women are invited to be creative in seeking new expressions of making a difference in our church and society and break the ice of a mediocre. Courageous women who have come to age in maturity of reflections and experiences tackle and leave a heritage to the next generation, carrying the torch and facing hardships and of responsibilities for a total integral human development. Indeed, feminist – women movements are in the crossroad of a march. Can God and His people count on us? In which areas can feminism-women movements can engage in as signs of hope for a new evangelization and peace?
如同耶穌的門徒以及修女或朋友在面對他人時一樣, 女性主義者的婦女運動以創新與勇氣維持與未來的前進同步時, 也面臨著一些挑戰. 婦女們受邀在我們教會及社會中, 以創新尋求一個不同以往的表現方式, 進而除去芸芸眾生的冷漠. 已具 備成熟意識與經驗的勇敢婦女, 準備好要留傳給下一個世代珍貴的事物, 帶著火炬, 為整個人類發展迎向困難與責任. 的確, 女性主義的婦女運動正站在前進的十字路口. 天主及祂的子民能否信任我們? 哪些區域可以讓女性主義的婦女運動, 致力於象徵希望的新福傳與和平?
At this point, allow me to suggest some areas of a continue study and reflection on feminism:
就這一點, 容我建議, 在某些地區繼續做女性主義的研究及檢討:
1. A better collaboration between religious and lay women as equal partners.
在修會會士與平信徒婦女間, 建立更為良好的合作關係, 使成為平等的夥伴.
2. A deeper understanding of our nature as women to nurture a culture of life as educators of peace.
3. An openness of hearts to accept the differences of races, genders and beliefs, being real Catholics, universal and without boundaries.
4. A continue search and discernment of values and actions on the essentials in life is a coherent witness of faith, love and hope of God and of others.
5. New ministries where feminist – women movements can engage in as signs of hope for new evangelization and peace.
As this reflection is an open ended one, I do not have any conclusion. I continue to pray and do my part in the mission of Jesus to be in solidarity with feminist-women movements as SPROUT, believing that no matter how little my steps are, somehow, they contribute to make a bigger step in the march towards love, peace, joy and justice.
由於這篇感言是結論開放的文章, 我不做任何總結. 我會繼續祈禱並盡我的本份執行耶穌基督的使命, 堅定地配合胚芽的女性主義者-婦女運動, 相信無論我的步履有多小, 那些步履或多或少會積成大的步伐朝向愛、和平、喜樂與正義前進.
1. Brief History of Feminist Movement, Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, 10pp. 2. Catherine Kaveny, Defining Feminism, America, the National Catholic Weekly, Feb. 28, 2011. USA 3. Women’s Teachers of Peace, Pope John Paul II Message on the Year of Women 1995. 4. Caritas in Veritate ( Charity in Truth), Pope Benedict XVI, Carmel Inter. Publishing House India, 2009
- 1樓. Sir Norton 三犬之夜2022/06/27 10:58殊不知，近八十年來，阻礙女權興起的最大力量，是基督、天主教的神棍。過去三佰年，歐陸天主教會燒死數百萬「不從的女巫」。🌹
這篇的原主筆的無知，部分的瞎扯直如謊話，讀了豈不令女性heartbreaking?🦉💕尊重你的觀點. 我敗絮其外, 我金玉其中 於 2022/06/30 23:53回覆