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Selected poems:里爾克的《哀歌與十四行詩》
2022/08/08 05:23
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Selected poems:里爾克的《哀歌與十四行詩》

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonnets_to_Orpheus
The Sonnets to Orpheus (German: Die Sonette an Orpheus) are a cycle of 55 sonnets written in 1922 by the Bohemian-Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke (1875–1926). It was first published the following year. Rilke, who is "widely recognized as one of the most lyrically intense German-language poets," wrote the cycle in a period of three weeks experiencing what he described a "savage creative storm."[3] Inspired by the news of the death of Wera Ouckama Knoop (1900–1919), a playmate of Rilkes daughter Ruth, he dedicated them as a memorial, or Grab-Mal (literally "grave-marker"), to her memory.
At the same time in February 1922, Rilke had completed work on his deeply philosophical and mystical ten-poem collection entitled Duino Elegies which had taken ten years to complete. The Sonnets to Orpheus and the Duino Elegies are considered Rilkes masterpieces and the highest expressions of his talent.


書名:哀歌與十四行詩
作者:里爾克
譯者:張德明
出版社:山東文藝
出版日期:2012/8

[
解析]
第一部
1
此為全詩開篇,描述了俄耳甫斯歌聲的魅力。19222月的一天,里爾克漫步瓦萊街頭,在櫥窗裡看到威尼斯畫家齊瑪··柯奈利亞諾畫的一幅素描,畫面中俄耳甫斯在吹笛,周圍簇擁著的動物在專注地傾聽。詩人靈感由此觸發,寫下了本詩。據希臘神話,俄耳甫斯是宙斯之子,他撥弄弦琴,一路放歌,使頑石移步,鳥雀低飛,野獸匍匐。為何他有如此神力?只因他的歌聲為黑暗的獸性提供了一個出口,使其具有了傾聽的能力。詩人將聽覺形象轉化為視覺形象,先將歌聲形容為一棵大樹,之後又將其形容為一座神廟。如此,這些動物就在俄耳甫斯的歌聲的感召下,完成了從獸性到人性的轉變。


〈第一部〉(26首選4)
1
那兒升起一棵樹。呵,純粹的上升!
呵,俄耳甫斯在歌唱!呵,耳中的大樹!
於是萬物沈默。但即使在這緘默中,
新的開端和轉變的跡象也開始顯露。

安靜的動物被引出了那明亮
自由的樹林,從巢穴和棲居地;
它們變得如此溫順,決不是
出於狡計,也不是由於驚慌,

而是由於傾聽。吼叫,嘶鳴和咆哮,
在它們心中顯得渺小。幾乎沒有
一間茅舍在那裡,將其收留,

卻有一個避難所,出自朦朧的渴求,
在其入口處,它的廊柱在顫抖——
你在它們的耳中建起了神廟。

Tree arising! O pure ascendance!
Orpheus Sings! Towering tree within the ear!
Everywhere stillness, yet in this abeyance:
seeds of change and new beginnings near.

Creatures of silence emerged from the clear
unfettered forest, from dens, from lairs.
Not from shyness, this silence of theirs;
nor from any hint of fear,

simply from listening. Brutal shriek and roar
dwindled in their hearts. Where stood a mere
hut to house the passions of the ear,

constructed of longing darkly drear,
haphazardly wrought from front to rear,
you built them a temple at listenings core.

5
不要建造紀念碑。只讓玫瑰
年復一年為他綻開。因為
這就是俄耳甫斯。他的變形
千姿百態。我們無須費心

去找其他名稱。一次即永恆
這就是俄耳甫斯,當他歌唱的時候。
他來了又走。如果他有時能
比玫瑰花瓣多活幾天,又豈非太久?

呵,他要怎樣消逝,才能使你懂得!
即使他自己也在擔憂,他會消逝
在詞語超越此在的那個時刻,

他已經在那兒,而你卻無法跟從。
琴弦之網並未縛住他的雙手。
他在超越的同時,又在順應。

Orpheus requires no tomb.
The god himself shines from the flower;
in his mortal stead behold the rose in bloom,
resurrected in one thing and another beyond our

power to name. In the short and long,
suffice it that though he comes and goes:
tis Orpheus singing wherever theres song.
Give thanks should he sometime outlive the rose.

Dreading his own disappearance,
he vanishes that you may understand.
The instant his word transcends coherence,

he is flown beyond your interference.
The lyres strings do not tie his hand.
In overstepping lies his true obedience.

19
任憑世界瞬息萬變
猶如過眼雲煙,
一切完成之物終將
回歸古老家園。

超越變化和進程,
更加自由寬廣,
手持弦琴的神,
繼續你原初歌唱。

苦難尚未認清,
愛情尚未學習,
死的奧秘遠離我們,

尚未敞開自身。
唯有大地上的歌
在歡唱在成聖。

Quick though the earth itself churns,
changing like cloud formations,
each fulfilled thing returns
to ancient foundations.

Beyond changing and passing,
freer and higher,
your prelude is alone lasting:
god with the lyre.

Grief is beyond comprehension.
True love has never been learned.
Nor do we know by what agency

we are to death interned.
Only the song over the land
yields blessing and commemoration.

22
我們是推動力。
而時間的腳步,
不過是瑣碎之物
在永恆的持續裡。

一切倏忽不定者
早已消失於無形;
因為唯有永恆者
才能使我們成聖。

孩子呵,別把勇氣
虛擲在快速的行進,
和試飛的實驗裡。

萬物都在休息:
黑暗與光明,
花朵與書籍。

Times drivers, that we are.
Its repetitious pace
is all but effaced
in what endures forever.

All which is hurrying
soon will reach conclusion.
Only the everlasting
gives consecration.

Youth, do not waste your clout
on the rigors of flight,
leave trials of speed forsook.

All these things at last play out:
darkness and brilliant light,
flower and book.


[英譯參考資料]
https://web.archive.org/web/20080531150008/http://www.hunterarchive.com/files/Poetry/SonnetsToOrpheus.html
The Sonnets to Orpheus
by Rainer Maria Rilke
Translation by Robert Hunter


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