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第二任德州州長喬治 泰勒 伍德
2016/06/02 00:41
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第二任德州州長喬治 泰勒 伍德
George Tyler Wood
George Tyler Wood


2nd Governor of Texas

In office
December 21, 1847 – December 21, 1849
Lieutenant
John Alexander Greer

Preceded by James Pinckney Henderson

Succeeded by Peter Hansborough Bell

Personal details
Born March 12, 1795
Randolph County, Georgia

Died September 3, 1858 (aged 63)
Point Blank, Texas

Political party Democratic

Profession Soldier, Public Official

Signature

第二任德州州長喬治 泰勒 伍德
George Tyler Wood (March 12, 1795 – September 3, 1858)

was an American military officer and politician who served as the second Governor of Texas.

Background
大部份有關伍德私人生活的記錄因火災及其他原因而遺失。使得許多他生活的詳情成為不可知。1795年3月12日伍德生於喬治亞州的卡斯伯特。他的母親是伊莉沙白 布里斯 伍德,父名不詳,他五歲時去世。當他19歲時伍德為克里克戰爭和馬蹄鐵灣之戰募集一隊志願軍。根據傳統,伍德在戰爭期間他遇到山姆 休士頓和愛德華 博雷森。
Most records dealing with Wood's personal life have been lost due to fire or other causes. As a result many details about his life are unknown.[1] Wood was born near Cuthbert, Georgia on March 12, 1795.[2] His mother was Elizabeth Burris Wood. His father, name unknown, died when he was five.[1] When he was nineteen, Wood raised a company of volunteers for the Creek War and fought in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend.[2] According to tradition, Wood met Sam Houston and Edward Burleson during the campaign.[3]
在卡斯伯特伍德做乾貨生意非常的成功。1837年在一趟採買的旅途上在喬治亞坊邊村他遇到一名叫瑪莎 靳德雷特的寡婦。1837年9月18日他們倆結婚。他們有兩個小孩,加上瑪莎先前婚姻帶來三個小孩。在伍德生意之外,1837-8他還是喬治亞議會的成員。
Wood operated a successful dry goods business based in Cuthbert. During a buying trip in 1837 he met a young widow named Martha Gindrat during a stop in Milledgeville, Georgia.[2] The two married on September 18, 1837.[3] The marriage produced two children in addition to the three Martha brought from her previous marriage.[1] Beyond his business interests, Wood was a member of the Georgia General Assembly from 1837–8.[4]
Texas
1839年伍德和家人搬到德克薩斯共和國。在他研究了布雷左,科羅拉多及三一河之後,他在自由縣的布蘭克點(在今日的聖傑辛多縣)建立了一個成功的農莊。
1841年伍德被選為德克薩斯共和國自由縣的國會議員,1845年美國合併德克薩斯時他代表他的家鄉縣在州憲會議中立州縣。伍德在德克薩斯加入聯邦之後被選為德州參議員。當美墨戰爭爆發後他辭去他的參議員職位,他成為第二騎兵志願隊的上校。在服務期間以攻下蒙特瑞有功。

In 1839, Wood and his family moved to the Republic of Texas.[2] After exploring the Brazos, Colorado and Trinity rivers, he selected a site near the present-day town of Point Blank in Liberty County (now in San Jacinto County).[3] At this site he quickly built a prosperous plantation.[2]
Wood was elected to the Congress of the Republic of Texas in 1841, representing Liberty County in the House of Representatives. In 1845, during the annexation of Texas by the United States, he represented his home county during the convention which wrote the state constitution [4] Wood was elected to the Texas Senate following Texas's admission to the United States. When the Mexican-American War began he resigned his senate seat and became Colonel of the Second Regiment Texas Mounted Volunteers. During his service he was present for the capture of Monterrey.[3]
Governorship
1847年詹姆士 平克尼 韓得森決定不再競選連任州長,各路人馬競逐其位。有五位候選人,而主要議題是如何解決公共借債。在選前一個月,一位候選人以薩克 范 詹特因黃熱病去世。大部份以薩克 范 詹特的支持者轉而支持伍德。伍德以7154票獲勝,第二名候選人詹姆士 米樂是5106票。
The 1847 decision of Governor James Pinckney Henderson to not seek another term left a wide open race for his replacement. A race dominated by five candidates developed with the key issue being how to deal with the public debt.[2] About a month before the election one of the candidates, Isaac Van Zandt, died of yellow fever. Most of Van Zandt's support shifted to Wood. As a result he won the election with 7,154 votes compared to second place finisher James B. Miller with 5,106.[5]
當州長上任之後,德州有美金$5,500,000公債並無良方可還債。他鼓吹把州所屬土地賣給聯邦政府。德州議會並不支持他的計劃,但是通過一個法案由州會計和財務長來決定有多少債務再來定用什麼樣方法付款。
When the governor took office, Texas had US$5,500,00 in outstanding bonds with no obvious means to repay the debt.[6] To deal with the public debt, he advocated a plan to sell state land to the U.S. Federal government. The Texas Legislature did not support this plan and, after negotiations with Wood, passed a bill calling for the state Accountant and comptroller to determine the exact amount of debt before a method of payment was determined.[5]
在伍德州長任內亦產生了新墨西哥地位之争。德州認為新墨西哥是她領域內的一部份,但不為聯邦政府所承認。為加強德州的宣告,德州議會設立駐聖塔非縣和第十一法院轄區。當任命的新法官到新轄區時,他發現聯邦軍隊已在城內,於是他支持聯邦的地位。
The Wood administration also saw an intensification of a dispute over the status of New Mexico. Texas considered New Mexico part of its territory but the claim was not recognized by the Federal government.[6] To strengthen its claim, the Texas Legislature created Santa Fe County and the eleventh judicial district. When the judge appointed to preside over the new district arrived in Santa Fe, he found federal troops already in the city who were determined to support the federal position.[5]
另一項伍德需面對的問題是城鎮和縣的組織,建立法院大樓及改革政府部門的作業。為了防衛德州西部邊區,要求美國國會設立邊堡。
Other issues dealt with by Wood were the organization of towns and counties, establishing court buildings, and reforming government operations.[6] To defend the state's western frontier, a request was sent to Congress asking for a string of forts to be constructed. reapportionment of the state was the most contested issue to arise during Wood's term. The coastal and central sections of the state, fearing loss of representation, opposed the proposal while the northeastern section supported the effort. Despite the opposition, a reapportionment bill was passed by the legislature.[7]
1848年2月21日
On February 21, 1848, Wood presided over the Texas Democratic convention, the first true political convention to be held in the state. This was followed by an 1849 effort to win a second term. The primary challenger to the governor was Peter H. Bell who ran on the issues of frontier defense and the New Mexico dispute. Wood strongly defended the positions he had taken but was defeated by a margin of 10,319 votes to 8,754.[7]
Later life
伍德離開州長職位之後,回到農莊,除了莊園之外,他還在蓋文斯頓建立了商業生意。1853年及1855年他再選州長均不成功。1858年9月3日他逝於家中。
After leaving office, Wood returned to his farm.[7] In addition to his plantation, he established a mercantile business in Galveston.[8] He would made unsuccessful runs to be elected Governor in 1853 and 1855. He died at his home on September 3, 1858.[9]
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