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理則學 練習01
2007/11/20 18:56
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A. Interpreting each example in the way it is most likely to be intended, say whether it contains an actual argument. If so, what is the conclusion and what are the premises?

1.Dogs always like bones, so her dog surely will like these bones I've brought.

狗總是喜歡骨頭,因此她的狗無疑地將喜歡我帶來的這些骨頭

Ans:

是論證,句子前半段為前提,後半段為結論。說者認為前面語句所描寫的事況為真,因此後面語句所描寫的事況也會成真。

請用自己的話寫

17. If all that oil is spilled into the river, serious pollution will occur.

如果所有的油溢出入河,將會發生嚴重的汙染

Ans:

1.      如果所有的油溢出入河,則將會發生嚴重的汙染

2.      所有的油溢出入河

∴將會發生嚴重的汙染

是論證,句子前半段為前提,後半段為結論。說者認為前面語句所描寫的事況為真,因此後面語句所描寫的事況也會成真。

我看不到句子中有說所有的油都被倒入河中了

「若我肚子餓自然就會去吃飯」有我已經肚子餓的意思嗎?

B. Digram the structure of each of the following arguments.

3.The car is worth the price you're asking only if it's in mint condition. But its condition isn't that good. It looks as though the frame has been twisted in a collision. So the car isn't worth your price.

Ans:

A number of different points are present in this argument.

1.      The car is worth the price you're asking only if it's in mint condition.

這部汽車值你所說的價格只限於如果它是新的狀態

2.      But its condition isn't that good.

但是它的狀態不是那麼的好

3.      It looks as though the frame has been twisted in a collision.

看樣子它的邊框似乎在一次碰撞中而扭曲

4.      So the car isn't worth your price.

所以這部汽車不值得你所說的價格

The following diagram is the structure of this argument

 3-->2

           =>4      

       1 

C. Construct a clear step-by step argument establishing what the answer is to each of the following problems.

3. There's to be a surprise fire drill one weekday next week. The following statements have been made about it: "It'll be Monday"; "It'll be Tuesday"; "It'll be Wednesday"; "It won't be Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday"; "It won't be Thursday." One and only one of these statements is true, when will the fire drill be?

Ans:

We can diagram the above hints:

1.      There's to be a surprise fire drill one weekday next week.

有個令人感到意外的消防演習在下個星期的一個平常日

畫成圖則為:○○○○○(星期一à星期五)

2.      "It'll be Monday";

"它將是星期一";

畫成圖則為:XXXX(星期一à星期五)

3. "It'll be Tuesday";

"它將是星期二";

畫成圖則為:XXXX(星期一à星期五)

4. "It'll be Wednesday";

"它將是星期三";

畫成圖則為:XXXX(星期一à星期五)

5"It won't be Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday";

"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三";

畫成圖則為:XX○○○ XX○○(星期一à星期五)

"It won't be Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday"應理解成:並非(在星期一、星期二、星期三),也就是不會在星期一,也不在星期二,也不在星期三

6. "It won't be Thursday."

"它將不是星期四"

畫成圖則為:○○○X(星期一à星期五)

並不是所有的題目都適合畫圖來方便理清題目條件,像這一題若用畫圖表示我就看不出有什麼幫助。 

分析:

如果"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"為真,則"它將是星期一""它將是星期二""它將是星期三"皆為假。

如果"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"為真,則有以下二種可能性:

1.      "它將不是星期一,星期二"為真→它可能是星期三→與"它將是星期三"為假矛盾

2.      "它將不是星期一,星期三"為真→它可能是星期二→與"它將是星期二"為假矛盾

反之,如果"它將是星期一"."它將是星期二""它將是星期三"其中有一句為真,則會與"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"造成矛盾。如:

"它將是星期一"為真,則"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"為假,進而推論出:

(1) "它將是星期二"必為假,與"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"為假矛盾

(2) "它將是星期三"必為假,與"它將不是星期一,星期二或星期三"為假矛盾

由以上推論可知,只有"它將不是星期四"為真

∴消防演習日為星期五