Contents ...
udn網路城邦
柏拉圖《會飲篇》--我們每個人都只是半個人...我們每個人都一直在尋求與自己相合的那一半...全體人類的幸福只有一條路,這就是實現愛情
2009/09/18 07:45
瀏覽22,166
迴響3
推薦6
引用0

這段文章是從柏拉圖 Plato 的《會飲篇》Symposium 摘錄出來,而整個《會飲篇》其實是在討論愛神的偉大或是說愛情的偉大,參加討論的人有蘇格拉底、悲劇家阿伽松 Agathon 、喜劇家阿里斯托芬 Aristophanes 、醫生厄律克西馬庫 Eryximachus 、詭辨學派斐德羅 Phaedrus 及鮑薩尼亞 Pausanias ,其中阿里斯托芬的發言特別有趣,就像是在說一個神話故事(也許你村上春樹「海邊的卡夫卡」也曾讀過),我在網路上找到了這個英譯版本,現在再搭配王曉朝先生的部分譯文(左岸文化出版),如果你有時間的話,就請看個故事吧!

你們要知道,人本來分成三種….

In the first place, let me treat of the nature of man and what has happened to it; for the original human nature was not like the present, but different. The sexes were not two as they are now, but originally three in number; there was man, woman, and the union of the two, having a name corresponding to this double nature, which had once a real existence, but is now lost, and the word ‘Androgynous’ is only preserved as a term of reproach.

最初的人是球形的,有著圓圓的背和兩側,有四條胳膊和四條腿,有兩張一模一樣的臉孔….

In the second place, the primeval man was round, his back and sides forming a circle; and he had four hands and four feet, one head with two faces, looking opposite ways, set on a round neck and precisely alike; also four ears, two privy members, and the remainder to correspond. He could walk upright as men now do, backwards or forwards as he pleased, and he could also roll over and over at a great pace, turning on his four hands and four feet, eight in all, like tumblers going over and over with their legs in the air; this was when he wanted to run fast.

男人是太陽生的,女人是大地生的,陰陽人是具有兩種性別特徵的月亮生的….他們實際上想要飛上天庭,造諸神的反

Now the sexes were three, and such as I have described them; because the sun, moon, and earth are three; and the man was originally the child of the sun, the woman of the earth, and the man-woman of the moon, which is made up of sun and earth, and they were all round and moved round and round like their parents. Terrible was their might and strength, and the thoughts of their hearts were great, and they made an attack upon the gods; of them is told the tale of Otys and Ephialtes who, as Homer says, dared to scale heaven, and would have laid hands upon the gods. Doubt reigned in the celestial councils. Should they kill them and annihilate the race with thunderbolts, as they had done the giants, then there would be an end of the sacrifices and worship which men offered to them; but, on the other hand, the gods could not suffer their insolence to be unrestrained. At last, after a good deal of reflection, Zeus discovered a way.

宙斯說,我有一個辦法可以削弱人類….我提議把他們全都劈成兩半….

He said: ‘Methinks I have a plan which will humble their pride and improve their manners; men shall continue to exist, but I will cut them in two and then they will be diminished in strength and increased in numbers; this will have the advantage of making them more profitable to us. They shall walk upright on two legs, and if they continue insolent and will not be quiet, I will split them again and they shall hop about on a single leg.’

他吩咐阿波羅把人的臉孔轉過來,讓他能用切開一半的脖子低下頭來看到切開的這面身子,使他們感到恐懼,不再搗亂….

He spoke and cut men in two, like a sorb-apple which is halved for pickling, or as you might divide an egg with a hair; and as he cut them one after another, he bade Apollo give the face and the half of the neck a turn in order that the man might contemplate the section of himself: he would thus learn a lesson of humility. Apollo was also bidden to heal their wounds and compose their forms. So he gave a turn to the face and pulled the skin from the sides all over that which in our language is called the belly, like the purses which draw in, and he made one mouth at the centre, which he fastened in a knot (the same which is called the navel); he also moulded the breast and took out most of the wrinkles, much as a shoemaker might smooth leather upon a last; he left a few, however, in the region of the belly and navel, as a memorial of the primeval state.

那些被劈成兩半的人都非常想念自己的另一半,他們奔跑著來到一起,互相用胳膊摟著對方的脖子,不肯分開。他們什麼都不想吃,也什麼都不想做,因為他們不願離開自己的另一半….如果這一半死了,那一半還活著,活著的那一半就到處尋找配偶….人類就這樣逐漸滅亡

After the division the two parts of man, each desiring his other half, came together, and throwing their arms about one another, entwined in mutual embraces, longing to grow into one, they were on the point of dying from hunger and self-neglect, because they did not like to do anything apart; and when one of the halves died and the other survived, the survivor sought another mate, man or woman as we call them,—being the sections of entire men or women,—and clung to that.

宙斯起了憐憫心,他想了一個新辦法,把人的生殖器移到前面,使人可以通過男女交媾來繁殖….如果抱著結合的是一男一女,那麼就會懷孕生子,延續人類;如果抱著結合的是兩個男人,也可以使他的情欲得到滿足….

They were being destroyed, when Zeus in pity of them invented a new plan: he turned the parts of generation round to the front, for this had not been always their position, and they sowed the seed no longer as hitherto like grasshoppers in the ground, but in one another; and after the transposition the male generated in the female in order that by the mutual embraces of man and woman they might breed, and the race might continue; or if man came to man they might be satisfied, and rest, and go their ways to the business of life: so ancient is the desire of one another which is implanted in us, reuniting our original nature, making one of two, and healing the state of man.

我們每個人都只是半個人....我們每個人都一直在尋求與自己相合的那一半.…凡是由原始男人切開而來的男人是男人的追隨者,從少年時代起就愛和男人交朋友,藉此表現出男子氣來….

Each of us when separated, having one side only, like a flat fish, is but the indenture of a man, and he is always looking for his other half. Men who are a section of that double nature which was once called Androgynous are lovers of women; adulterers are generally of this breed, and also adulterous women who lust after men: the women who are a section of the woman do not care for men, but have female attachments; the female companions are of this sort. But they who are a section of the male follow the male, and while they are young, being slices of the original man, they hang about men and embrace them, and they are themselves the best of boys and youths, because they have the most manly nature. Some indeed assert that they are shameless, but this is not true; for they do not act thus from any want of shame, but because they are valiant and manly, and have a manly countenance, and they embrace that which is like them. And these when they grow up become our statesmen, and these only, which is a great proof of the truth of what I am saving. When they reach manhood they are lovers of youth, and are not naturally inclined to marry or beget children,—if at all, they do so only in obedience to the law; but they are satisfied if they may be allowed to live with one another unwedded; and such a nature is prone to love and ready to return love, always embracing that which is akin to him.

因此,當愛慕男童的人,或有這種愛情的人,幸運地碰上了他的另一半,他們雙方怎麼不會陶醉在愛慕、友誼、愛情之中呢?….他們的靈魂實際上都在尋求某種別的東西,這種東西他們叫不出名字來,只能用隱晦的話語賀寓言式的謎語道出

And when one of them meets with his other half, the actual half of himself, whether he be a lover of youth or a lover of another sort, the pair are lost in an amazement of love and friendship and intimacy, and one will not be out of the other’s sight, as I may say, even for a moment: these are the people who pass their whole lives together; yet they could not explain what they desire of one another. For the intense yearning which each of them has towards the other does not appear to be the desire of lover’s intercourse, but of something else which the soul of either evidently desires and cannot tell, and of which she has only a dark and doubtful presentiment.

……….

所有這些事實際上都是人類原初狀態的殘餘,我們本來是完整的,而我們現在正在企盼和追隨這種原初的完整性,這就是所謂的愛情….我想說的是全體人類,包括所有男人跟女人,全體人類的幸福只有一條路,這就是實現愛情

And the reason is that human nature was originally one and we were a whole, and the desire and pursuit of the whole is called love. There was a time, I say, when we were one, but now because of the wickedness of mankind God has dispersed us, as the Arcadians were dispersed into villages by the Lacedaemonians. And if we are not obedient to the gods, there is a danger that we shall be split up again and go about in basso-relievo, like the profile figures having only half a nose which are sculptured on monuments, and that we shall be like tallies. Wherefore let us exhort all men to piety, that we may avoid evil, and obtain the good, of which Love is to us the lord and minister; and let no one oppose him—he is the enemy of the gods who opposes him. For if we are friends of the God and at peace with him we shall find our own true loves, which rarely happens in this world at present. I am serious, and therefore I must beg Eryximachus not to make fun or to find any allusion in what I am saying to Pausanias and Agathon, who, as I suspect, are both of the manly nature, and belong to the class which I have been describing. But my words have a wider application —they include men and women everywhere; and I believe that if our loves were perfectly accomplished, and each one returning to his primeval nature had his original true love, then our race would be happy. And if this would be best of all, the best in the next degree and under present circumstances must be the nearest approach to such an union; and that will be the attainment of a congenial love.

只要我們敬畏諸神,那麼愛神終有一天會治癒我們的病,使我們回歸原初狀態,生活在快樂與幸福之中

Wherefore, if we would praise him who has given to us the benefit, we must praise the god Love, who is our greatest benefactor, both leading us in this life back to our own nature, and giving us high hopes for the future, for he promises that if we are pious, he will restore us to our original state, and heal us and make us happy and blessed. 

有誰推薦more
全站分類:知識學習 隨堂筆記
自訂分類:Selected & Extracts

限會員,要發表迴響,請先登入
迴響(3) :
3樓. alan__chen@yahoo.com.tw
2013/12/30 09:22

我贊成樓上有關人的主體的說法,惟有個別人的自主完整,相互個體的結合才能完整。但這有過程,並非原初,因為一個人自主容易,兩個人自主而和諧難。或許柏拉圖由關照"人"的高度藉希臘神話隱喻這份理想。

Alan

另外,借分享囉

資源共享囉 ! 好 le14nov2013/12/30 13:13回覆
2樓. le14nov
2010/07/07 13:32
相關閱讀

http://blog.udn.com/diotima/4200125

雅典帝國主義、Alcibiades與柏拉圖的迂迴 by 翔任

1樓. blackmoon(永恆的懷念,空行者)
2009/12/13 23:08
''另一半''的說法讓我打噴嚏
我反對這種''另一半''的說法,我個人的看法是,人生在世上都是一個單獨
的個體,每個人有自己的感官,肉體跟心裡的感覺是無法轉移的,例如疼痛,
我們無法把他人肉體的疼痛接過來,好讓這個人的肉體不再疼痛,我們也
無法把他人的心理疼痛接過來,好讓這個人不再有心理疼痛,每個人都必
須單獨面對自己身心的喜怒哀樂,也因此,這個所謂的''另一半''是毫無實
質意義的。

我認為,每個人都應該先認識自己,努力讓自己發展成為獨立完整的個體,
並且愛這個獨立完整的自己,然後,人才能接受另一個個體,另一個獨立完
整的個體,並且愛這另一個獨立完整的個體,我認為,只有在兩個獨立完整
個體之間,才能產生真正的愛,亦即,非佔有性,非功利性,非依賴性的互
相尊重的愛,我也相信,這是人性向上提昇的未來之路,我甚至要把這樣的
愛擴展到人跟動物之間。說得輕鬆一些,我的意思是,如果Matrix時代降臨,
我一定會去參加游擊隊,跟人性統一化的世界對抗。

我對這種''另一半''的說法,真是敏感極了,好像''愛''上另一個人,只是因為
她/他可以彌補我的缺憾,對我來說,這就是依賴性跟功利性的關係,當然,
''愛''可以因時因地因人而有不同的定義,但是我絕對堅持,每個人都應該對
自己個體的發展負責,而不是靠另一半來完成。

今天是星期天,時間比較多,所以回應也比較長,別嚇壞了。

來自遙遠黑月的問候

謝謝您的回應,除了說回應的人極少之外,願意回應這麼長的應該也是頭一遭。

您和翔任都是我最近在網路上看到比較敬佩的部落格作家之一,從您的回應也可以知道您確實是屬於「友直、友諒、友多聞」的"益友"類,可惜的是依我目前的程度想要做一些思想交流,可能還嫌太早。

您提到「每個人都應該先認識自己,努力讓自己發展成為獨立完整的個體」,然而要如何努力發展呢 ??  這不禁讓我想起青年時代極喜愛的一本紀德 Gide 的小說"窄門",男女主角各自努力提昇自我,想要在道德上達到一個境界,才能彼此結合...卻終究是以悲劇收場。

當我從精神世界的愛情想像中釋放,進入真實世界讓愛情具體化時,就好像再也無法適用任何理論了,這讓我聯想到了《追憶似水年華》中描述德·維爾巴里西斯夫人的一段對話:
有一次,一個矜誇的貴婦問她:「您對愛情有何高見?」她回答說:「您問愛情?我只管實踐,從不談論。」

le14nov2009/12/14 09:27回覆