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幸福:永遠的生活議題(2)
2009/01/29 20:05
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Chapter 2

所以,假使在我們行事中有追求的目的 (其他任何事也渴望如此)而且,假使我們不是為了一些特定的其他事,選擇每件事(因為進程若幾乎是遙不可測的,我們的欲求可能會是空洞、徒勞和無效的),無疑的,這一定是善而且是最高的善。認識這種最高善的知識之後,生活可能產生巨大影響和改變,我們必須像射手有箭靶要瞄準,才能正確射箭。假使這樣說不錯,我們就必須努力在起碼應有的綱要上,確定它是什麼目的,以及達成這目的學科和其輕重地位。這需要的似乎應該是最可信賴的技藝,最正確的能夠總集成的技藝。政治學的本質顯然合乎這需要;因為它可規定城邦裡應該教導哪些相關的學科、不同的各社會階層應該學習什麼以及學習到怎樣的程度;而且,我們也實際上看到極高度受尊重的能力,例如戰術、理財術和演講術的地位,都在政治學之下。既然政治學常支配其他各種學科,此外,也因為它可立法規定我們必須做的和必須禁的事;這個學科的目的必須包含其他的學科,以利為人民行善的目的。因為即使這目的是兼顧個人和整個城邦,對於城邦看起來無論如何是能夠獲得和保持更大些而且更完整的結果,對於個人也是值得的,對於全部的城邦和國家而言當然是更美好和神聖的。這些就是我們追求的終極目的,而政治學具有最後的整體智慧。

If, then, there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sake (everything else being desired for the sake of this), and if we do not choose everything for the sake of something else (for at that rate the process would go on to infinity, so that our desire would be empty and vain), clearly this must be the good and the chief good. Will not the knowledge of it, then, have a great influence on life? Shall we not, like archers who have a mark to aim at, be more likely to hit upon what is right? If so, we must try, in outline at least, to determine what it is, and of which of the sciences or capacities it is the object. It would seem to belong to the most authoritative art and that which is most truly the master art. And politics appears to be of this nature; for it is this that ordains which of the sciences should be studied in a state, and which each class of citizens should learn and up to what point they should learn them; now, since politics uses the rest of the sciences, and

since, again, it legislates as to what we are to do and what we are to abstain from, the end of this science must include those of the others, so that this end must be the good for man. For even if the end is the same for a single man and for a state, that of the state seems at all events something greater and more complete whether to attain or to preserve; though it is worth while to attain the end merely for one man, it is finer and more godlike to attain it for a nation or for city-states. These, then, are the ends at which our inquiry aims, since it is political science, in one sense of that term.

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