I. S + be v-pp (+ by agent) + adv.
1. This orphan was adopted by the Jones family.
2. That mindless assistant should be fired.
3. Businesses are attracted by the low rents in this area.
4. More than 1,000 new words will be added in the dictionary.
5. She has been affected by her parents’ divorce in a negative way.
II. I.O. + be v-pp + D.O. (+ by agent)
1. The bridge was built in the 19th century.
2. The company was established in 1895.
3. Paper is made from wood.
4. The elderly man was given a seat on the bus.
5. The student was lent $5,000 by the bank.
6. The driver is being issued a ticket to by the officer.
III. D.O. + be v-pp + to/for + I.O.
1. A seat was given (to) the disabled person on the crowded bus.
2. $5,000 was lent (to) him by the bank.
3. A ticket is being issued to the driver by the police.
4. This message was given (to) you.
5. Has the list of customer addresses been emailed (to) you yet?
1. This bridge must/ has to be closed/ shut.
2. (a) My book will/ is going to be published next month.
(b) My book is to be published next month.
3. The front door is locked.
4. This memo [=memorandum] has (already) been (already) proofread.
5. This chemical (substance/material) must not/can’t be used in foods/food products.
1. My car couldn’t/wouldn’t start this morning.
2. The latest (model of) cell phone sells very well.
3. This (kind of) plywood burns very slowly.
4. (a) Your chance of getting heart disease may/could decrease with regular exercise.
(b) By exercising regularly, the likelihood that you get heart disease may/could decrease.
(c) Regular exercise may/could decrease your probability of getting heart disease.