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國際性跆拳道組織談判之研究(摘要)
2010/08/05 11:37
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國際性跆拳道組織談判之研究

摘 要

目前國際性跆拳道組織分為國際跆拳道聯盟( ITF )與世界跆拳道聯盟( WTF )兩大主流,本研究旨在探討跆拳道發展過程與現況,並針對兩大聯盟之談判結構進行分析,期能瞭解跆拳道未來可能走向;研究方法上,採用結構研究途徑、文獻分析法、個案研究法與訪談法行之。本研究經過實際訪談後,獲致結論如下:一、價值結構:雙方之「目標點」與「支撐點」形成「協議區」,ITF與WTF在「協議區」中進行談判,雙方總裁於2002年已達成「跆拳道統一」之共識,故目前雙方仍以此為最終目標,希望在談判中達成雙贏。未來要如何擴展兩大聯盟之共同利益,加強維持雙方長期的合作關係,乃一重要課題。二、環境結構:2002年起ITF與WTF進行數次見面,除2007年4月6~9日ITF前往WTF總部進行親善之旅外,其餘各次見面皆於第三地舉行。2006年11月24~25日雙方共同成立「合併發展委員會」,專司談判相關事宜。在期限壓力上,ITF之最終目標為「跆拳道整合」,故較無期限壓力;WTF之目標為「留在奧運會」,故期限壓力為2013年,若2013年以前無法提出具體整合方案向IOC陳報,WTF將可能被排除於2020年奧運會之外。三、議題結構:兩大聯盟係屬「多議題談判」,並將各項議題合起來分成多次談,其中具象議題多於抽象議題,目前雙方立場不再對立,並願意為了跆拳道未來發展共謀利益,雙方自談判之初,討論議題皆以比賽規則與競賽方式為先,兩造間互相參考對方規則,並進行研擬修正。四、權力結構:就總和結構權力之「外交權力」而言,2002年以前WTF有金雲龍在位,故WTF之外交權力大於ITF,2004年金雲龍下臺後,ITF之外交權力則大於WTF;在「內政權力」上,ITF逐漸接納WTF體系之學習者,並期望在各項制度中取得共同點。「特定議題結構權力」方面,ITF選項多於WTF,就控制力而言,雙方對於談判結果有一定之期待,故在「協議區」中兩造皆有穩定之「堅持度」。雙方談判在行為權力之「相關資訊」已互相掌握;「談判經驗」中ITF認為WTF較無誠意,WTF則因擔心跆拳道在奧運會之前途,故與ITF談判;在「專業知識」上,雙方皆為跆拳道背景,雖然技術體系與競賽方式有所差異,但雙方已對此進行討論,故專業知識尚屬對等。五、成員結構:談判者由雙方總部共同推薦,成立「合併發展委員會」;兩大聯盟談判將影響雙方會員國之未來發展,故若干教練正透過各種管道,對談判狀況進行關切;雙方談判中IOC介入甚深,另外早期韓國跆拳道教練對此議題也深感關切,希望談判能有結果。

關鍵詞:跆拳道、談判結構

A Qualitative Research on the Negotiation of International Taekwondo Organizations 

Abstract 

The two mainstream Taekwondo organizations are International Taekwondo Federation and World Taekwondo Federation. The research attempted to explore recent status and developing process of Taekwondo, and to analyze the negotiation structure of the two federations. Furthermore, the researcher also tried to find out the future trend of Taekwondo. Structural approaches, literature review, case study and interview were used in the research. According to the data analysis, the results of the study indicated that: 1) Value structure: The "target point" and the "resistance point" formed "Agreement Area". ITF and WTF negotiated affairs in "Agreement Area". The two chairmen have achieved cognition of integrating Taekwondo. They keep this as the final target, and hope to reach win-win situation. In the future, how to extend common benefits and to strengthen long term partnership between two federations will be an important issue. 2) Environmental structure: ITF and WTF have met several times since 2002. The meetings were usually held at the place which was excluded from the location of ITF and WTF. Nevertheless, there was one exception that ITF visited WTF’s headquarter for showing friendly during April 6th~9th 2007. "Coordination Committee for Taekwon-do Integration" was established on November 24th /25th 2006 by ITF and WTF. It transacts negotiation-related affairs. The ultimate goal of ITF is to integrate Taekwondo into one system, so there is no pressure of time-limit. The other side, the ultimate goal of WTF is to keep itself staying in Olympic game. However, if WTF can not raise a specific program of integrating to IOC before 2013, WTF might be banished from the Olympic game in 2020. 3) Issue structure:ITF and WTF both are "multiple issues negotiation", they organize all kinds of issues and discuss them in many different times. In the issues, specific ones are more than abstract ones. Presently, they do not stand at an opposing position anymore, and they are willing to share benefits for Taekwondo’s future development. From the beginning of negotiation, the issues about rules or competitions have priority in discussing. 4) Authority structure: "Diplomacy Power" in "Aggregate Structural Power": Kim Un Yong was in power until 2004. Therefore, WTF had higher diplomacy power than ITF before 2004. After that, the situation is reverse."Domestic Affairs Power": ITF accept learners from WTF gradually, and they hope to get common points among all kinds of systems. Issue-Specific Structural Power": The options of ITF are more than WTF. For controlling, both sides have great expectation toward negotiation, so their insistence on "agreement area" is stable. "Behavior power": They both understood behavior power related information between each other. "Negotiation Experience": ITF thinks that WTF showed less sincerity. WTF was worried about the future of Taekwondo in Olympic game, so they negotiated with ITF. "Professional Knowledge": They have the same background of Taekwondo although the fighting skill and the competitive way are different. Their Professional Knowledge belongs to the same level. 5) Member structure: The negotiators are recommended from both sides’ headquarter, and formed the "Coordination Committee for Taekwon-do Integration";two federations’ negotiation will impact future development to both sides’ members. Therefore, some coaches are showing their concern over the situation by many different ways;IOC has deeply intervened on negotiation, and elder Korea coaches also concerned a lot about this issue, they all hope that there will be a satisfied result in the end.

Key words: Taekwondo、negotiation structure

鄭家銓(2010)。國際性跆拳道組織談判之研究。未出版碩士論文,國立體育大學,桃園縣。
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