我的困惑-後期聖徒教會是耶穌還是約瑟的教會?
原文網址:http://blog.udn.com/lofranklo/4789231
列印日期:2020/01/20
斯密約瑟如何翻譯摩爾門經?
2011/01/12 19:56:36

教會教導我們,斯密約瑟藉著烏陵和土明二塊譯具來翻譯摩爾門經,翻譯摩爾門經的大概方式如圖二。

    然而,當時斯密約瑟週邊目睹他翻譯的人,所描述的斯密約瑟翻譯摩爾門經 的方式,卻是跟他在用觀看石頭來定位寶藏的方式相似,如圖三所示。

    當時在照顧斯密約瑟起居的斯密愛瑪(第一任抄寫員)在寫給他們兒子斯密約瑟三世的信說:「我經常日復一日地幫你父親抄寫,常坐在靠近他的桌邊,他坐著把臉埋在放著那塊石頭(the stone)的帽子裡,不斷口述給我,接連幾小時,我們之間沒有其他對話。 (Independence, Missouri: Herald House, 1951), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma," 3:356)

    摩爾門經三位見證人之一的大衛惠特茂(翻譯工作大部份在惠特茂家中進行)說:「我要告訴你們摩爾門經是怎麼翻譯的。斯密約瑟把尋寶石(seer stone)放在帽子裡,並把臉埋在帽子裡,臉和帽子靠得很近以擋住光線,然後靈性之光會在黑暗中發亮。這時,會看到一片羊皮紙出現,紙上寫著字。一次出現一個字,底下則顯出其英文翻譯。約瑟弟兄把此英文翻譯讀給考德里奧利佛,他是主要的抄寫員,奧利佛抄寫後覆誦給約瑟弟兄聽看是否抄寫正確,之後,那些字才消失,接著下一個字和其譯文出現。也就是,摩爾門經是靠著神的力量,而非人的力量而翻譯。(David Whitmer, An Address to All Believers in Christ, Richmond, Missouri: n.p., 1887, p. 12)

大衛惠特茂:「我及我父親的家人,約瑟的妻子,考德里奧利佛,和哈里斯馬丁,在翻譯時均在場….[約瑟弟兄]翻譯時沒有用到金葉片。(Interview given to Kansas City Journal, June 5, 1881, reprinted in the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Journal of History, vol. 8, (1910), pp. 299-300).

哈里斯馬丁(摩爾門經三位見證人之一,曾任短暫抄寫員,直到遺失了一些抄寫譯稿) 寫信給後來成為總會副會長的朋友Edward Stevenson, Edward轉述如下:「他說先知擁有一顆尋寶石,藉著它,他能像藉著烏陵和土明一樣來翻譯。為了方便,他乾脆就用這石頭。馬丁解釋翻譯的過程如下,藉著尋寶石的幫助,句子會出現,先知唸出句子,馬丁就抄寫,抄寫好後,馬丁會說一聲寫好了,如果抄寫正確,該句子消失新句子出現,但如果抄寫不正確,該句子會繼續留著直到我們改正,所以,這翻譯正是那鐫刻在金葉片上的精準翻譯。(Edward Stevenson, "One of the Three Witnesses," reprinted from Deseret News, 30 Nov. 1881 in Millennial Star, 44 (6 Feb. 1882): 86-87).

海耳以薩(斯密愛瑪的父親,跟斯密約瑟一起為約西亞史達爾挖寶)說:「他讀和翻譯的方式,就跟他幫挖寶者定位時一樣,把一塊石頭放在帽子裡,帽子把臉整個蓋住,而此時金葉片正藏在樹林裡。(Affidavit of Isaac Hale dated March 20, 1834, cited in Rodger I. Anderson, Joseph Smith’s New York Reputation Reexamined, (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1990), pp. 126-128.)

斯密約瑟的父親說:金葉片「正藏在山上」(Palmer, 2002, pp. 2–5).

摩斯馬克(斯密愛瑪的姐夫) 寫道:「當斯密約瑟在翻譯摩爾門經時,我不只一次撞見。他翻譯有一持續不變的模式,即將尋寶石放置帽頂,把臉放進帽裡好完全蓋住臉,把手肘放置膝上,然後一字一字口述,由抄寫員-斯密愛瑪,惠特茂,奧利佛-寫下。(W.W. Blair interview with Michael Morse, Saints’ Herald, vol. 26, no. 12 (June 15, 1879), pp. 190-91.)

    麥克昆恩博士於是說:「從一八二七年到一八三零年這段期間,斯密約瑟放棄了他那些先前尋找挖堀財寶的夥伴們,但是繼續把他先前在尋寶時用的棕色尋寶石用在宗教用途上。他最密集和有效率地使用這尋寶石的時候是他在翻譯摩爾門經的時候,他也用這尋寶石對他的幾個同伴指示了幾個啟示。(Early Mormonism and the Magic World View P. 143)

摩爾門經是全世界最正確的一本書

斯密約瑟說他是透過烏靈和土明,靠著神的恩賜和力量翻譯了摩爾門經。但他周圍最親密的家屬朋友都指證,他是使用他尋寶時用的尋寶石來翻譯,而且他翻譯時,摩爾門經不是已被斯密約瑟放在箱子埋在樹林裡就是用布蓋著,總之,他翻譯時,不需金葉片在旁邊,以致於斯密愛瑪一輩子都沒看過金葉片。於是,這不免使人好奇:既然斯密約瑟用尋寶時用的尋寶石就可以翻譯,而翻譯時又不需金葉片在旁邊,那麼摩羅乃把金葉片及烏陵和土明給斯密約瑟的意義在哪裡?

總會當局早就知道這一切,卻一直教導我們,斯密約瑟藉著烏陵和土明二塊譯具來翻譯摩爾門經,而翻譯摩爾門經的大概方式如圖二。這種行為並不是誠實與正直的典範。正確的信心不應是建立在half-truth上!

另一方面,既然摩爾門經是靠著神的恩賜和力量逐字翻譯的 (History of the  Church, i, p.54-55),一有人為錯誤即被神的力量糾正,為何第一版摩爾門經(1830)會有將近4000個錯誤?(3913 Changes in the Book of Mormon, Jerald and Sandra Tanner; Utah Lighthouse Ministry)一些例子如下:有些是錯字,有些是文法錯誤, 有些則是教義的更動(如從看起來像三位一體的經文改成三位三體)。印刷工人也許會拼錯字,但要把文法錯誤、人名誤植、和教義的更動歸咎於他們,恐怕太牽強。譬如,尼腓二書30:6不出幾代,他們必成為純潔 (pure)而可愛的民族。」, 1830版摩爾門經寫得是:「白皙(white) 而可愛」。pure white 發音和字型實在不太同。

斯密約瑟說:我告訴過弟兄們,摩爾門經是全世界最正確的一本書,也是我們宗教的拱心石,人若遵循其中的教訓,要比遵循任何其他的書更能接近神。」(History of the Church, vol. 4, p. 461)

顯然,斯密約瑟這句啟示至少不適用教會初創第一年,因為第一版摩爾門經(1830)裡有3913個錯誤!

羅琳的哈利波特、托爾金的魔戒和金庸的武俠小說比摩爾門經厚很多倍,原著譯著都不可能出現上千的錯誤。人不太會犯的錯,神更不可能犯拼字、文法、人名誤植、義茅盾的錯誤,如有什麼錯誤,那是人的錯誤;因此,不要責備神的事情,」。如果摩爾門經全然是神的手翻譯的,那是金刻玉律,誰有權力更動它?

如果摩爾門經的翻譯,參雜很多人的因素,那我們姑且體諒的軟弱。接受說:靠著神的恩賜和力量和烏陵和土明二塊譯具的幫助下,斯密約瑟翻譯摩爾門經時還是因人的軟弱犯了3913個錯誤。

可是翻譯完摩爾門經後,斯密約瑟已把金葉片及烏陵和土明交還給摩羅乃,那在沒有金葉片及烏陵和土明的對照和幫助下,他怎麼知道那3913個更動的地方是對是錯?因為聖靈會告訴他!也許吧!但是聖靈照理說已在當初翻譯摩爾門經時的過程與他同在了!改動完這3913處經文後,誰能保證摩爾門經內已完全沒有因的軟弱而發生的翻譯或抄寫的錯誤?

譬如,阿爾瑪書7:10「看啊,他要在我們祖先的土地耶路撒冷,由瑪麗亞所生;」 但新約上說,救主誕生在伯利恆。又譬如,尼腓二書1:8李海說:"看啊,這地暫且不為其他民族所知,是明智的;因為看啊,不然,許多民族會在此地繁衍,如此一來,就沒有地方可作為繼承的土地了。所以先知們的教導和摩爾門經緒言才斬釘截鐵地說拉曼人是美洲印第安人的唯一(或主要的primary)祖先,並要教友們如此相信,要傳教士如此教導!

2006年,教會更改了緒言,改為拉曼人是美洲印第安人的祖先之一(among),但更改了緒言後恐又面臨與尼腓二書1:8的矛盾?

1830 Edition of the Book of Mormon

1981 Edition of the Book of Mormon

1 Nephi 11:18

"And he said unto me, Behold, the virgin which thou seest, is the mother of [. . . . ] God, after the manner of the flesh

"And he said unto me: Behold, the virgin whom thou seest is the mother of the Son of God, after the manner of the flesh."

1 Nephi 11:21

"And the angel said unto me, behold the Lamb of God, yea, even the [. . . . ] Eternal Father!..."

"And the angel said unto me: Behold the Lamb of God, yea, even the Son of the Eternal Father!..."

1 Nephi 11:32

"...And I looked and beheld the Lamb of God, that he was taken by the people; yea, [. . . . ] the Everlasting God, was judged of the world..."

"...And I looked and beheld the Lamb of God, that he was taken by the people; yea, the Son of the everlasting God was judged of the world..."

1 Nephi 13:40

"...and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and people, that the Lamb of God is [. . . . ] the Eternal Father and the Savior of the world..."

"...and shall make known to all kindreds, tongues, and people that the Lamb of God is the Son of the Eternal Father, and the Savior of the World..."

1 Nephi 19:20

"...for had not the Lord been merciful, to shew unto me concerning them, even as he had prophets of old; [. . . . ] for he surely..."

"...for had not the Lord been merciful, to show unto me concerning them, even as he had prophets of old, I should have perished also."

1 Nephi 20:1
changed in 1964 ed.

"Hearken and hear this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah,[. . . . ] which swear..."

"Hearken and hear this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, or out of the waters of baptism, who swear..."

Mosiah 21:28
changed in 1964 ed.

"...king Benjamin had a gift from God, whereby he could interpret such engravings;..."

"...king Mosiah had a gift from God, whereby he could interpret such engravings;..."

Alma 46:40

"...because of the excellent qualities of the many plants and roots which God had prepared, to remove the cause of diseases which was subsequent to man by the nature of the climate."

"...because of the excellent qualities of the many plants and roots which God had prepared to removed the cause of diseases, to which men were subject by the nature of the climate."

3 Nephi 3:23

"And the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla, and the land which was between the land of Zarahemla and the land Bountiful."

"And the land which was appointed was the land of Zarahemla [ . . . .] and the land Bountiful..."

3 Nephi 10:4

"O ye people of these great cities which have fallen which are a descendant of Jacob; yea which are of the house of Israel; O ye people of the house of Israel, how oft have I gathered you..."

"O ye people of these great cities which have fallen, who are descendants of Jacob, yea, who are of the house of Israel, [. . . . ] how oft have I gathered you..."

3 Nephi 16:10

"and thus commandeth the Father that I should say unto you at that day, When the Gentiles shall sin against my Gospel, and shall subject the fulness of my Gospel, and shall be lifted up..."

"And thus commandeth the Father that I should say unto you: At that day when the Gentiles shall sin against my gospel,[. . . . ] and shall be lifted up..."

3 Nephi 22:4

"...for thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, [. . . . ] and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any more."

"...for thou shalt forget the shame of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy youth, and shalt not remember the reproach of thy widowhood any more."

Ether 9:2

"...nevertheless, the Lord was merciful unto Omer, and also to his sons and to his daughters, which were not, or which did not seek his destruction."

"Nevertheless, the Lord was merciful unto Omer, and also to his sons, and to his daughters [. . . . ] who did not seek his destruction."

圖二教會教導之翻譯摩爾門經的大概方式(如第一圖)。

圖三.斯密約瑟翻譯摩爾門經 的實際方式(如第二圖)。